When you think of AIB's Foundations seminars, you expect to study all the subtleties of product quality. In the hands-on labs, you're expecting to discover how different processing techniques impact finished products. What you might not expect is to learn how basic ingredients perform instrumental functions for baked goods. We'll help you set the groundwork in our first few Baking Foundation courses of 2017.
Foundations: Breads & Rolls
Jan. 23-27 | Manhattan, Kansas
Foundations: Cookies & Crackers
Mar. 6-9 | Manhattan, Kansas
Foundations: Baking Basics
Apr. 6-7 | Phoenix, Arizona
Here are 10 common ingredients we'll discuss in at least one of our Baking Foundation courses.
1. ASCORBIC ACID: also known as Vitamin C, is an oxidizing agent used in some breads. It is used to improve finished bread characteristics such as loaf volume and crumb texture. It is a naturally occurring vitamin so it is sometimes viewed as more consumer-friendly than other types of oxidizing agents.
2. SALT: or sodium chloride, provides many functional benefits to bread production. These include aiding in the control of yeast fermentation, strengthening the gluten structure of the flour proteins, and enhancing the flavor of the finished bread. Salt is considered one of the four basic ingredients needed for bread along with flour, water and yeast.
3. AMMONIUM BICARBONATE: commonly used to leaven cookies and crackers. When heated it produces ammonia gas, carbon dioxide gas, and water. It is very hydroscopic (water loving) and should be dissolved in cold water prior to adding into a dough to avoid lumps in the dough and dark spots in the baked product.
4. SODIUM ACID PYROPHOSPHATE: often abbreviated as SAPP, is a very effective leavening ingredient in cake doughnut production. It is generally used in combination with other fast acting leavening acids and will react more slowly giving expansion to the doughnut in the fryer. It therefore has an effect on doughnut shape and size as well as eating quality (tenderness).
5. WATER: the most ignored of all ingredients in breads, even though it is second only to flour in formula weights. It is necessary for hydration, gluten development, starch gelatinization, and can be used for temperature control. Water hardness has an important impact on gluten strength and end-product characteristics.
6. EGGS: contribute to structure, moisture retention, flavor, and color in many cookies. Options include whole eggs, egg whites, and egg yolks, depending upon the requirements of the formulation.
7. MALT: can be used in crackers to increase browning reactions and flavor. Diastatic malt contributes functional enzymes, while nondiastatic malt does not.
8. FLOUR: selection of the correct flour for specific baked products is of primary importance. Understanding the differences between flours from hard and soft wheats is the first step.
9. WHEAT COLOR: important for whole wheat flour. Percent protein is used as a general guideline for flour strength.
10. SHORTENING: a solid fat made from vegetable oils, which have been modified to create a semi-solid. It is used to make various baked goods tender and perhaps flaky. Store your shortening at room temperature for up to a year.